संस्कृत सुभाषित : संस्कृत सुभाषित - भाग १
सुभाषित (सु+भाषित = सुन्दर ढंग से कही गयी बात) ऐसे शब्द-समूह, वाक्य या अनुच्छेदों को कहते हैं जिसमें कोई बात सुन्दर ढंग से या बुद्धिमत्तापूर्ण तरीके से कही गयी हो। सुवचन, सूक्ति, अनमोल वचन, आदि शब्द भी इसके लिये प्रयुक्त होते हैं।
अग्निशेषमृणशेषं शत्रुशेषं तथैव च |
पुन: पुन: प्रवर्धेत तस्माच्शेषं न कारयेत् ||
If a fire, a loan, or an enemy continues to exist even to a small extent, it will grow again and again; so do not let any one of it continue to exist even to a small extent. यदि कोई आग, एक ऋण, या एक शत्रु अस्तित्व ही रहेगी को भी एक छोटी-सी सीमा तक, इससे बार-बार बढ़ने; अत: ऐसा न होने दीजिए यह किसी एक के अस्तित्व को जारी करने के लिए भी एक छोटी-सी हद तक ।
पृथिव्यां त्रीणि रत्नानि जलमन्नं सुभाषितम् |
मूढै: पाषाणखण्डेषु रत्नसंज्ञा प्रदीयते ||
There are three jewels on earth: water, food, and adages. Fools, however, regard pieces of rocks as jewels.
नाभिषेको न संस्कार: सिंहस्य क्रियते मृगैः |
विक्रमार्जितराज्यस्य स्वयमेव मृगेंद्रता ||
Animals do not coronate a lion through sprinkling holy water on him and conducting certain rituals. He assumes kingship (effortlessly) through his own prowess. पशु coronate नहीं माध्यम से एक शेर छिड़काव पवित्र जल को कतिपय कर्मकांड और उनके संचालन । उन्होंने कार्यभार राजत्व (सरलता से) अपने कौशल माध्यम से ।
वनानि दहतो वन्हेस्सखा भवति मारूत: |
स एव दीपनाशाय कृशे कस्यास्ति सौहॄदम् ||
When a fire is burning a forest, wind becomes its friend. The same wind extinguishes a small flame. Who holds friendship with the weak? जब एक आग जलाने का एक वन, पवन हो जाती है उसके मित्र है । बुझा हवा के साथ एक छोटी-सी ज्वाला । धारण करता है, जो दोस्ती की कमजोर है?
विद्या विवादाय धनं मदाय शक्ति: परेषां परिपीडनाय |
खलस्य साधोर्विपरीतमेतज्ज्ञानाय दानाय च रक्षणाय ||
A bad person uses his knowledge for (empty) argumentations, his wealth for egotistic actions, and his power for harming others. The opposite is true concerning a good person: He uses his knowledge, wealth, and power for providing to others knowledge, financial help, and protection, respectively. एक खराब व्यक्ति अपने ज्ञान कामों के लिए (खाली) argumentations, अपनी संपदा से अहंकारी कार्यों के लिए बिजली पहुंचा और उनके अन्य है । विपरीत यह सच के बारे में एक अच्छा व्यक्ति: उन्होंने उपयोगों अपने ज्ञान, संपत्ति, और शक्ति को उपलब्ध कराने के लिए अन्य २ाान, वित्तीय सहायता और संरख्रण, क्रमश:
दुर्बलस्य बलं राजा, बालानां रोदनं बलम् |
बलं मूर्खस्य मौनित्वं चौराणामनृतं बलम् ||
A king forms the strength of the weak; crying forms the strength of a child. Keeping mum forms the strength of a fool; lying forms the strength of thieves. राजा की ताकत का रूपों की कमजोर; रो रूपों की ताकत का एक बालक था । बात-चीत रूपों को ध्यान की ताकत का एक मूर्ख बनाना; पड़े रूपों की ताकत का चोरों का ।
अश्वं नैव गजं नैव व्याघ्रं नैव च नैव च |
अजापुत्रं बलिं दद्याद्देवो दुर्बलघातक: ||
Not a horse, not an elephant, not a tiger is ever offered as a sacrifice at an altar. It is a baby goat which is offered as a sacrifice. (Alas!) God does not protect the weak. घोड़े नहीं, न हाथी पर कभी नहीं है एक बाघ की पेशकश की बलि के रूप में एक वेदी । यह एक शिशु बकरी के रूप में, जो कि पेशकश की बलि । (ओह!) ईश्वर की रक्षा के लिए नहीं कमजोर हो जाती है |
अष्टादशपुराणानां सारं व्यासेन कीर्तितम् |
परोपकार: पुण्याय पापाय परपीडनम् ||
In all the 18 'Puranas' Shri. Vyaasa Maharshi has told only two gospels: Doing favour to others is 'Punya' and troubling others is 'Paapa' (Sin)!!
हिमालयं समारभ्य यावत् इंदु सरेावरम् |
तं देवनिर्मितं देशं हिंदुस्थानं प्रचक्षते ||
Starting from Himalayas and extending upto Indu sarovaram (Indian Ocean) is the nation created by God which is known as 'Hindusthan'. Himalayan ranges including Hindukush parvat on Western side and the ranges extending upto North Myanmar ( Brahmadesh) on the Eastern side formed the Northern Boundary of ancient Hindusthan. This land extended upto the Indian Ocean on the Southern side. This is the sacred land where God took Birth from time to time and recreated and established the social structure.
एत_ेश प्रसूतस्य सकाशादग्रजन्मना |
स्वं स्वं चरित्रं शिक्षेरन् पॄथिव्यां सर्वमानवा: ||
All the people over the earth (Pruthiwyam Sarvamanavaha) should take lessons about living and building their characters from the ancestors (Rishis and Saints) (Agrajanmanaha) who took birth in this land, Nation. (Etaddesh prasootasya) The Hindu culture and heritage is the greatest of it's kind in this world and has power to lead and show right path to the whole world.
अयं निज: परो वेति गणना लघुचेतसाम् |
उदारचरितानां तु वसुधैव कुटुम्बकम् ||
Consideration like "he is mine or he is another's" occur only to the narrow minded persons. To the broad-minded persons the whole world is a family.
क्षणश: कणश्चैव विद्याम् अर्थं च साधयेत् |
क्षणे नष्टे कुतो विद्या , कणे नष्टे कुतो धनम् ||
Every moment one should learn, from every bit one should earn. If you waste a second (kshan) you can't get knowledge (vidya) and if you waste a bit (kan) u can't get money (artham)
अश्वस्य भूषणं वेगो मत्तं स्याद् गजभूषणं |
चातुर्यम् भूषणं नाया- उद्योगो नरभूषणं ||
Speed is the glory of Horse (Ashwa) . The majestic walk is the glory of elephant (Gaja) Being wise ('Chatur') is an asset to women (Naarya) and always being engaged in some work (Udyogo) suits the man.
क्षुध् तृट् आशा: कुटुम्बिन्यो मयि जीवति न अन्यगा: |
तासाम् आशा महासाध्वी कदाचित् मां न मुञ्चति ||
क्षुत्तृडाशा: कुटुम्बिन्यो मयि जीवति नान्यगा: |
तासामाशा महासाध्वी कदाचिन्मां न मुञ्चति ||
Hunger, Thirst (Trut) and desire (Aasha) are like man's three wives. Until he is alive these three will never leave him or go else where. In comparison of the three, desire (Aasha) is a 'MahaSaadhvi' because it NEVER EVER leaves the man. Unlike hunger and thirst which disappear for some time after eating /drinking, desire is the thing which never disappears from man's mind!!
कुलस्यार्थे त्यजेदेकं ग्रामस्यार्थे कुलं त्यजेत् |
ग्रामं जनपदस्यार्थे आत्मार्थे पृथिवीं त्यजेत् ||
One should sacrifice one's self-interest for the sake of one's family, one's family for the sake of one's town members, one's town members for for the sake of one's nation, and sacrifice the whole earth for the sake of one's soul's enlightenment.
नाक्षरं मंत्ररहीतं नमूलंनौषधिम् |
अयोग्य पुरुषं नास्ति योजकस्तत्रदुर्लभ: ||
There is no letter which is not a mantra(which cant be used in mantra), there is no root, which can't form some medicine, there is no person who is absolutely useless. But persons who can identify their utility and put them in proper usage are rare.
धारणाद्धर्ममित्याहु: धर्मो धारयते प्रजा: |
यस्याद्धारणसंयुक्तं स धर्म इति निश्चय: ||
The word "dharma" is derived from verb "dhaaraNa". it is "dharma" which holds society together. Hence if something is able to hold people together, no doubt it is dharma.
आहारनिद्राभयमैथुनं च सामान्यमेतत् पशुभिर्नराणाम् |
धर्मो हि तेषाम् अधिकोविशेषो धर्मेण हीना: पशुभि: समाना: ||
Eating (or things needed for survival), sleep, fear from somebody and sex life (for reproduction), these habits are common between human beings and animals. (in this respect we cant differentiate between man and animal). it is "dharma" which is additional important quality of man, without which he is same as an animal. ( read dharma as per subhashita 17.)
न वा अरे मैत्रेयी पत्यु: कामाय पति: प्रियो भवति |
आत्मनस्तु कामाय पति: प्रियो भवति ||
O Maitreyi! Man is not loved (by his wife) because he is husband, but because of the 'Atma' (Soul) in him.
सत्यस्य वचनं श्रेय: सत्यादपि हितं वदेत् |
यद्भूतहितमत्यन्तं एतत् सत्यं मतं मम ||
Telling truth is recommended, but more than that, tell those things which are in interest of all. According to me (nArada here) thing which is beneficial to large community, is truth.
न राज्यं न राजाऽसीन्न दण्डयो न च दाण्डिक: |
धर्मेणैव प्रजास्सर्वा रक्षन्ति स्म परस्परम् ||
There is no kingdom nor any king! No criminal nor any judge to give the penalty to the criminal!! All the people protect each other by the virtue of Dharma (The meaning of Dharma being explained in Subhaashita No.17). This is a 'varnan' of an 'Aadarsha' samaj !! A samaj which is a 'live' samaj in which each and every individual lives completely up to his responsibility!! Only a samaj which will be made up of such 'ideal' individuals can 'realise' the above subhaashita!! One example is worth mentioning. If the number of social service organisations such as orphanages, child care centres etc. keep growing then is it a healthy sign of progress of society or not?? Infact such institutions will come up because the relatives or neighbours may have failed to do their Dharma!! this is told by Bhishmacharya to Yudhisthir in shantiparva (after mahabharat war). while he was lying on "sharapanjari" waiting for bed. Bhishmacharya is generally telling dharmaraja about hou good his rule should be. you may have noticed that the subhashit is in past tans. this situation (praja dharmeNaiva parasparm rakshanti sma) was there in India long back. much before raja-praja system was introduced. to my knowledge ekshwaku was the first king (any body can correct me if i'm wrong.)
सत्यं ब्रुयात् प्रियम् ब्रुयान्नब्रुयात् सत्यमप्रियम् |
प्रियम् च नानॄतम् ब्रुयादेष: धर्म: सनातन: ||
speak true, speak what is pleasant to others. don't tell truth which is not pleasant (which is harmful) (similarly) even though pleasant, don't speak false, this is Darmah You will find this "eshah dharmah sanatanah" in many subgashitas normally this is kept at the end. to emphasize on what poet is trying to say. other such part is "iti smrtah", "iti nishchayah" etc.
अपि स्वर्णमयी लंका न मे रोचति लक्ष्मण |
जननी जन्मभूमिश्च स्वर्गादपि गरीयसी ||
Lakshman, This Golden Lanka does not allure me. Mother and Motherland is dearer to me even than heaven. This 'Shloka' is from the conversation between Lord Shree Ram and Lakshmana in 'Valmiki Ramayana'. It is very appropriate to remember the shloka on the occasion of Vijayadashami. Over six thousand years ago, after the great Victory over Ravana, on the day of Vijayadashami, Lord Shree Ram tells Lakshmana that He was not interested in the wealth of Lanka and did never want to rule Lanka. He would rather go back to His Motherland. Later 'Vibheeshana' was made the king of Lanka.
मरणान्तानि वैराणि निवॄत्तं न: प्रयोजनम् |
क्रीयतामस्य संस्कारो ममापेष्य यथा तव ||
Enmity ends with death. our job is over. (Now) he(rAvaNa) is mine as he is yours. so do his cremation properly. These are sentences of ShriRAma after the death of rAvaNa on vijayA dashami. this reflects our sanskriti. As rAvaNa was dead, his brother bibhishan was hesitating for cremation. According to him rAvaNa's body was not worthy of proper treatment. to this our shrirAma says, now that he is dead, he is not our enemy and deserves proper sanskara. compare this against how Mongol (or in general muslim) invaders trreated with bodies of our kings.
काव्यशास्त्रविनोदेन कालो गच्छति धीमताम् |
व्यसनेन च मूर्खाणां निद्रया कलहेन वा ||
A intelligent ('buddhiman') man spends his time in the research and studies of literature ('Kaavya') and philosophy ('Shastras' like Veda Shastra, dharma shastra etc.). Or in other words the said subjects are means of his entertainment (He gets satisfaction due to the studies of 'kaavya' and philosophy). In contrast a unintelligent ('Murkha') man gets satisfaction in bad habits like sleep (Laziness), quarrel or some type of addiction. Tatparya (Conclusion): In this subhaashita the subhaashitkar has in short advised the reader that how should one spend his/her time!! May be according to him a 'buddhiman' is a person who invests his time in order to get some thing 'valuable' and long lasting!!